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Among the transportable goods the Comanche acquired on these raids were members of other tribes or citizens from Mexico or the United States.

These high-ranking men were from among the elite leadership of each tribe. A man could rise to such rank by exhibiting prowess in combat.

The Comanche were hunters and gatherers and, as was often the case with such cultures, women were in charge of the gathering.

Since the Comanche were a polygamous society, one or more women might be attached to a single man and care for him by collecting nuts, berries and other wild vegetation near their camp.

Women prepared meals for their men with the food they gathered and the meat brought home by hunters. Women were also responsible for the home, which was usually a tee pee made form hides and wood.

They did not simply clean the home. Women had to actually build the tee pee, even if that meant carrying heavy wood and erecting the structure themselves.

They were also charged with raising children. Men would take charge of older boys, but women raised the girls and prepared them for marriage and motherhood.

Robert Paxton has been writing professionally since when he published his first novel. He has also published short stories and poems and writes ad copy for various websites.

He graduated from the University of Arizona in with a bachelor's degree in creative writing. Only after he had proven himself on a buffalo hunt was a young man allowed to go to war.

When he was ready to become a warrior, at about age fifteen or sixteen, a young man first "made his medicine" by going on a vision quest a rite of passage.

Following this quest, his father gave the young man a good horse to ride into battle and another mount for the trail. If he had proved himself as a warrior, a Give Away Dance might be held in his honor.

As drummers faced east, the honored boy and other young men danced. His parents, along with his other relatives and the people in the band, threw presents at his feet — especially blankets and horses symbolized by sticks.

Anyone might snatch one of the gifts for themselves, although those with many possessions refrained; they did not want to appear greedy.

People often gave away all their belongings during these dances, providing for others in the band, but leaving themselves with nothing.

Girls learned to gather healthy berries, nuts, and roots. They carried water and collected wood, and when about twelve years old learned to cook meals, make tipis, sew clothing, prepare hides, and perform other tasks essential to becoming a wife and mother.

They were then considered ready to be married. During the 19th century, the traditional Comanche burial custom was to wrap the deceased's body in a blanket and place it on a horse, behind a rider, who would then ride in search of an appropriate burial place, such as a secure cave.

After entombment, the rider covered the body with stones and returned to camp, where the mourners burned all the deceased's possessions.

The primary mourner slashed his arms to express his grief. The Quahada band followed this custom longer than other bands and buried their relatives in the Wichita Mountains.

Christian missionaries persuaded Comanche people to bury their dead in coffins in graveyards, [48] which is the practice today.

When they lived with the Shoshone, the Comanche mainly used dog-drawn travois for transportation. Later, they acquired horses from other tribes, such as the Pueblo, and from the Spaniards.

Since horses are faster, easier to control and able to carry more, this helped with their hunting and warfare and made moving camp easier.

Larger dwellings were made due to the ability to pull and carry more belongings. Being herbivores, horses were also easier to feed than dogs, since meat was a valuable resource.

A Comanche man's wealth was measured by the size of his horse herd. Horses were prime targets to steal during raids; often raids were conducted specifically to capture horses.

Often horse herds numbering in the hundreds were stolen by Comanche during raids against other Indian nations, Spanish, Mexicans, and later from the ranches of Texans.

Horses were used for warfare with the Comanche being considered to be among the finest light cavalry and mounted warriors in history.

The Comanche sheathed their tipis with a covering made of buffalo hides sewn together. To prepare the buffalo hides, women first spread them on the ground, then scraped away the fat and flesh with blades made from bones or antlers, and left them in the sun.

When the hides were dry, they scraped off the thick hair, and then soaked them in water. After several days, they vigorously rubbed the hides in a mixture of animal fat, brains, and liver to soften the hides.

The hides were made even more supple by further rinsing and working back and forth over a rawhide thong. Finally, they were smoked over a fire, which gave the hides a light tan color.

To finish the tipi covering, women laid the tanned hides side by side and stitched them together. As many as 22 hides could be used, but 14 was the average.

When finished, the hide covering was tied to a pole and raised, wrapped around the cone-shaped frame, and pinned together with pencil-sized wooden skewers.

Two wing-shaped flaps at the top of the tipi were turned back to make an opening, which could be adjusted to keep out the moisture and held pockets of insulating air.

With a fire pit in the center of the earthen floor, the tipis stayed warm in the winter. In the summer, the bottom edges of the tipis could be rolled up to let cool breezes in.

Cooking was done outside during the hot weather. Tipis were very practical homes for itinerant people. Working together, women could quickly set them up or take them down.

An entire Comanche band could be packed and chasing a buffalo herd within about 20 minutes. The Comanche women were the ones who did the most work with food processing and preparation.

The Comanche were initially hunter-gatherers. When they lived in the Rocky Mountains , during their migration to the Great Plains, both men and women shared the responsibility of gathering and providing food.

When the Comanche reached the plains, hunting came to predominate. Hunting was considered a male activity and was a principal source of prestige.

For meat, the Comanche hunted buffalo , elk , black bear , pronghorn , and deer. When game was scarce, the men hunted wild mustangs, sometimes eating their own ponies.

In later years the Comanche raided Texas ranches and stole longhorn cattle. They did not eat fish or fowl, unless starving, when they would eat virtually any creature they could catch, including armadillos , skunks , rats , lizards , frogs , and grasshoppers.

Buffalo meat and other game was prepared and cooked by the women. The women also gathered wild fruits, seeds, nuts, berries, roots, and tubers — including plums , grapes , juniper berries, persimmons , mulberries , acorns , pecans , wild onions , radishes , and the fruit of the prickly pear cactus.

The Comanche also acquired maize , dried pumpkin , and tobacco through trade and raids. Most meats were roasted over a fire or boiled. To boil fresh or dried meat and vegetables, women dug a pit in the ground, which they lined with animal skins or buffalo stomach and filled with water to make a kind of cooking pot.

They placed heated stones in the water until it boiled and had cooked their stew. After they came into contact with the Spanish, the Comanche traded for copper pots and iron kettles, which made cooking easier.

Women used berries and nuts, as well as honey and tallow , to flavor buffalo meat. They especially liked to make a sweet mush of buffalo marrow mixed with crushed mesquite beans.

The Comanches sometimes ate raw meat, especially raw liver flavored with gall. They also drank the milk from the slashed udders of buffalo, deer, and elk.

They also enjoyed buffalo tripe, or stomachs. Comanche people generally had a light meal in the morning and a large evening meal.

During the day they ate whenever they were hungry or when it was convenient. Like other Plains Indians , the Comanche were very hospitable people.

They prepared meals whenever a visitor arrived in camp, which led to outsiders' belief that the Comanches ate at all hours of the day or night.

Before calling a public event, the chief took a morsel of food, held it to the sky, and then buried it as a peace offering to the Great Spirit.

Many families offered thanks as they sat down to eat their meals in their tipis. Comanche children ate pemmican , but this was primarily a tasty, high-energy food reserved for war parties.

Carried in a parfleche pouch, pemmican was eaten only when the men did not have time to hunt. Similarly, in camp, people ate pemmican only when other food was scarce.

Traders ate pemmican sliced and dipped in honey, which they called Indian bread. Comanche clothing was simple and easy to wear.

Men wore a leather belt with a breechcloth — a long piece of buckskin that was brought up between the legs and looped over and under the belt at the front and back, and loose-fitting deerskin leggings.

Moccasins had soles made from thick, tough buffalo hide with soft deerskin uppers. The Comanche men wore nothing on the upper body except in the winter, when they wore warm, heavy robes made from buffalo hides or occasionally, bear , wolf , or coyote skins with knee-length buffalo-hide boots.

Young boys usually went without clothes except in cold weather. When they reached the age of eight or nine, they began to wear the clothing of a Comanche adult.

In the 19th century, men used woven cloth to replace the buckskin breechcloths, and the men began wearing loose-fitting buckskin shirts.

The women decorated their shirts, leggings and moccasins with fringes made of deer-skin, animal fur, and human hair.

They also decorated their shirts and leggings with patterns and shapes formed with beads and scraps of material. Comanche women wore long deerskin dresses.

The dresses had a flared skirt and wide, long sleeves, and were trimmed with buckskin fringes along the sleeves and hem.

Beads and pieces of metal were attached in geometric patterns. Comanche women wore buckskin moccasins with buffalo soles. In the winter they, too, wore warm buffalo robes and tall, fur-lined buffalo-hide boots.

Unlike the boys, young girls did not go without clothes. As soon as they were able to walk, they were dressed in breechcloths. By the age of twelve or thirteen, they adopted the clothes of Comanche women.

Comanche people took pride in their hair, which was worn long and rarely cut. They arranged their hair with porcupine quill brushes, greased it and parted it in the center from the forehead to the back of the neck.

They painted the scalp along the parting with yellow, red, or white clay or other colors. They wore their hair in two long braids tied with leather thongs or colored cloth, and sometimes wrapped with beaver fur.

They also braided a strand of hair from the top of their head. This slender braid, called a scalp lock, was decorated with colored scraps of cloth and beads, and a single feather.

Comanche men rarely wore anything on their heads. Only after they moved onto a reservation late in the 19th century did Comanche men begin to wear the typical Plains headdress.

If the winter was severely cold, they might wear a brimless, woolly buffalo hide hat. When they went to war, some warriors wore a headdress made from a buffalo's scalp.

Warriors cut away most of the hide and flesh from a buffalo head, leaving only a portion of the woolly hair and the horns.

This type of woolly, horned buffalo hat was worn only by the Comanche. Comanche women did not let their hair grow as long as the men did. Young women might wear their hair long and braided, but women parted their hair in the middle and kept it short.

Like the men, they painted their scalp along the parting with bright paint. Comanche men usually had pierced ears with hanging earrings made from pieces of shell or loops of brass or silver wire.

A female relative would pierce the outer edge of the ear with six or eight holes. The men also tattooed their face, arms, and chest with geometric designs, and painted their face and body.

Traditionally they used paints made from berry juice and the colored clays of the Comancheria. Later, traders supplied them with vermilion red pigment and bright grease paints.

Comanche men also wore bands of leather and strips of metal on their arms. Except for black, which was the color for war, there was no standard color or pattern for face and body painting: it was a matter of individual preference.

For example, one Comanche might paint one side of his face white and the other side red; another might paint one side of his body green and the other side with green and black stripes.

One Comanche might always paint himself in a particular way, while another might change the colors and designs when so inclined.

Some designs had special meaning to the individual, and special colors and designs might have been revealed in a dream.

Comanche women might also tattoo their face or arms. They were fond of painting their bodies and were free to paint themselves however they pleased.

A popular pattern among the women was to paint the insides of their ears a bright red and paint great orange and red circles on their cheeks.

They usually painted red and yellow around their lips. Because of their frequent traveling, Comanche Indians had to make sure that their household goods and other possessions were unbreakable.

They did not use pottery that could easily be broken on long journeys. Basketry, weaving, wood carving, and metal working were also unknown among the Comanches.

Instead, they depended upon the buffalo for most of their tools, household goods, and weapons. They made nearly different articles from the horns, hide, and bones of the buffalo.

Removing the lining of the inner stomach, women made the paunch into a water bag. The lining was stretched over four sticks and then filled with water to make a pot for cooking soups and stews.

With wood scarce on the plains, women relied on buffalo chips dried dung to fuel the fires that cooked meals and warmed the people through long winters.

Stiff rawhide was fashioned into saddles, stirrups and cinches, knife cases, buckets, and moccasin soles. Rawhide was also made into rattles and drums.

Strips of rawhide were twisted into sturdy ropes. Scraped to resemble white parchment, rawhide skins were folded to make parfleches in which food, clothing, and other personal belongings were kept.

Women also tanned hides to make soft and supple buckskin, which was used for tipi covers, warm robes, blankets, cloths, and moccasins.

They also relied upon buckskin for bedding, cradles, dolls, bags, pouches, quivers, and gun cases. Sinew was used for bowstrings and sewing thread.

Hooves were turned into glue and rattles. The horns were shaped into cups, spoons, and ladles, while the tail made a good whip, a fly-swatter, or a decoration for the tipi.

Men made tools, scrapers, and needles from the bones, as well as a kind of pipe, and fashioned toys for their children. As warriors, however, men concentrated on making bows and arrows, lances, and shields.

The thick neck skin of an old bull was ideal for war shields that deflected arrows as well as bullets. Since they spent most of each day on horseback, they also fashioned leather into saddles, stirrups, and other equipment for their mounts.

Buffalo hair was used to fill saddle pads and was also used in rope and halters. The language spoken by the Comanche people , Comanche N u m u tekwap u , is a Numic language of the Uto-Aztecan language group.

It is closely related to the language of the Shoshone , from which the Comanche diverged around The two languages remain closely related, but a few low-level sound changes inhibit mutual intelligibility.

The earliest records of Comanche from clearly show a dialect of Shoshone, but by the beginning of the 20th century, these sound changes had modified the way Comanche sounded in subtle, but profound, ways.

In the late 19th century, many Comanche children were placed in boarding schools with children from different tribes. The children were taught English and discouraged from speaking their native language.

Anecdotally, enforcement of speaking English was severe. Quanah Parker learned and spoke English and was adamant that his own children do the same.

The second generation then grew up speaking English, because it was believed [ who? Army to send messages conveying sensitive information that could not be deciphered by the Germans.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Comanche disambiguation. Plains native North American tribe. Flag of the Comanche [1]. Main article: Comanche history.

Main article: Comanche-Mexico War. Further information: Fisher—Miller Land Grant. Further information: Meusebach-Comanche Treaty.

Further information: Fort Martin Scott Treaty. Main article: Comanche language. Oklahoma Indian Affairs Commission. November Archived from the original PDF on April 24, Retrieved January 2, American Quarterly.

Retrieved Comanche Nation official website. Archived from the original on Native American Placenames of the United States.

University of Oklahoma Press. Retrieved 2 Jan Archived at the Wayback Machine Comanche Nation. Texas Historic Sites Atlas. Worley Printing Co.

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